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Enter the name for this tabbed section: Introduction to Mold
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Introduction to Mold

Molds use tiny spores to reproduce. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing and digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.  When excessive moisture or water accumulates indoors, mold growth will often occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.
Some Common Mold Types:

Stachybotrys Chartarum (Black Mold): This group of molds can thrive on water damaged, cellulose-rich material in buildings such as sheet rock, paper, ceiling tiles, insulation backing, wallpaper, etc. In the majority of cases where Stachybotrys is found indoors, water damage has gone unnoticed or ignored since it requires extended periods of time with increased levels of moisture for growth to occur. Stachybotrys is usually black and slimy in appearance. Events of water intrusion that are addressed quickly tends to support the growth of more xerophilic fungi such as Pencillium and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys is another fungi that has the ability to produce mycotoxins, ones that are extremely toxic, suspected carcinogens, and immunosuppressive. Exposure to these mycotoxins can result through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Symptoms of exposure include dermatitis, cough, rhinitis, nose bleeds, cold and flu-like symptoms, headache, general malaise, and fever.

Aspergillus: Aspergillus: is the most common genus of fungi in our environment with more than 160 different species of mold. Sixteen of these species have been documented as causing human disease. Aspergillosis is now the 2nd most common fungal infection requiring hospitalization in the United States.

Aspergillus fumigatus
: The most encountered species causing infection. It is seen abundantly in decomposing organic material, such as self-heating compost piles, since it readily grows at temperatures up to 55 C. People who handle contaminated material often develop hypersensitivity to the spores of Aspergillus and may suffer severe allergic reactions upon exposure.

Aspergillus flavus
: The 2nd most encountered fungi in cases of Aspergillus infection. It is also known to produce the mycotoxin aflatoxin, one of the most potent carcinogens known to man. In the 1960s, 100,000 turkey poults in Great Britain died from ingesting contaminated feed. Most countries have established levels for aflatoxin in food. However, the risks associated with airborne exposure are not adequately studied and no exposure standards exist.

Aspergillus niger
: The 3rd most common Aspergillus fungi associated with disease and the most common of any Aspergillus species in nature due to it's ability to grow on a wide variety of substrates. This species may cause a 'fungal ball', which is a condition where the fungus actively proliferates in the human lung, forming a ball. It does so without invading the lung tissue.

Cladosporium spp: These genera of mold are pigmented dark green to black in the front, and black on the reverse with a velvety to powdery texture. One of the most commonly isolated from indoor and outdoor air, Cladosporium spp. are found on decaying plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint, textiles, and the surface of fiberglass duct liner in the interior of supply ducts. There are over 30 species in the Cladosporium genus. The most common are C. elatum, C. herbarum, C. sphaerospermum, and C. cladosporioides. These fungi are the causative agents of skin lesions, keratitis, nail fungus, sinusitis, asthma, and pulmonary infections. Acute symptoms of exposure to Cladosporium are edema and bronchiospasms, and chronic exposure may lead to pulmonary emphysema.

Fusarium: A common soil fungus and inhabitant on a wide array of plants, this fungi is often found in humidifiers and has been isolated from water-damaged carpets and a variety of other building materials. Human exposure may occur through ingestion of contaminated grains and possibly through the inhalation of spores. Fusarium spp. are frequently involved with eye, skin, and nail infections. More severely it can produce hemorrhagic syndrome (alimentary toxic aleukia) in humans which is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis, and extensive internal bleeding. Several species can produce the trichothecene toxins which target the circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous systems. Vomitoxin is one such tricothecene mycotoxin that has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness in humans. Zearalenone is another mycotoxin produced by Fusarium. It is similar in structure to the female sex hormone estrogen and targets the reproductive organs.

Penicillium: These fungi are commonly found in soil, food, cellulose, grains, paint, carpet, wallpaper, interior fiberglass duct insulation, and decaying vegetation. Penicillium may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. The genus Penicillium has several species. The most common ones include Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium marneffei, and Penicillium purpurogenum. This fungi has been isolated from patients with keratitis, ear infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and urinary tract infections. Penicillium infections are most commonly exhibited in immunosuppressed individuals. For example, P. marneffei is a fungus abundant in Southeast Asia that typically infects patients with AIDS in this area. Infection with P.marneffei is acquired via inhalation and initially results in a pulmonary infection and then spreads to other areas of the body (lymphatic system, liver, spleen, and bones), and is often fatal. An indication of infection is the appearance of papules that resemble acne on the face, trunk, and extremities.

Penicillim spp
: do have the ability to produce mycotoxins. The mycotoxin known as Ochratoxin A, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic, may be produced by Penicillium verrucosum. Verrucosidin is another mycotoxin produced by this fungus that exhibits neurotoxity. Penicillic acid is another mycotoxin that is nephrotoxic (causes kidney and liver damage). Mycotoxins During the digestion of substrates, fungi secrete enzymes into nutrients in order to break down complex compounds into simpler compounds that can be taken up by the fungi and used as nutrition. These digested nutrients produce secondary metabolic byproducts called mycotoxins that are released to give the fungi a competitive edge over other microorganisms and fungi. Unfortunately, mycotoxins can also be incredibly toxic to humans causing a variety of responses including cold/flu-like symptoms, sore throats, headaches, nose bleeds, fatigue, diarrhea, dermatitis, and immune suppression. Some mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic and teratogenic. Molds that have been known to potentially produce these toxins are Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Stachybotrys. Even though these molds may potentially produce mycotoxins, they will not do so unless specific environmental conditions exist. Currently, it is unknown exactly what conditions promote the growth of mycotoxin production and more scientific research needs to be conducted on this topic for it to be fully understood.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Mold Facts
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Facts To Know

Ten Things You Should Know About Mold

1. Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions, asthma, and other respiratory complaints.

2. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

3 If mold is a problem in your home or school, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources of moisture.

4. Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mold growth.

5.Reduce indoor humidity (to 30-60% ) to decrease mold growth by: venting bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside; using air conditioners and de-humidifiers; increasing ventilation; and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning.

6.Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.

7. Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials such as ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need to be replaced.

8. Prevent condensation: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping, exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.

9. In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking fountains, by classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).

10. Molds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing moisture is present. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.

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How to Identify the Cause of a Mold and Mildew Problem

Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating climate locations. An exposed corner room is likely to be significantly colder than adjoining rooms, so that it has a higher relative humidity (RH) than other rooms at the same water vapor pressure. If mold and mildew growth are found in a corner room, then relative humidity next to the room surfaces is above 70%. However, is the RH above 70% at the surfaces because the room is too cold or because there is too much moisture present (high water vapor pressure)?

The amount of moisture in the room can be estimated by measuring both temperature and RH at the same location and at the same time. Suppose there are two cases. In the first case, assume that the RH is 30% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The low RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure (or absolute humidity) is low. The high surface RH is probably due to room surfaces that are "too cold." Temperature is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve increasing the temperature at cold room surfaces.

In the second case, assume that the RH is 50% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The higher RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure is high and there is a relatively large amount of moisture in the air. The high surface RH is probably due to air that is "too moist." Humidity is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve decreasing the moisture content of the indoor air.


Mold Abatement and Remediation

The New York City Department of Health publishes a guideline for professional mold assessment and remediation service providers. The guideline establishes five levels of abatement based on size of the affected area and discusses health protection measures for workers and occupants. See the Reference section at the end of this document for contact information to acquire a copy of the guidelines.

The California Department of Health Services also publishes clean-up procedures that are more oriented toward homeowners. See the Reference section for this contact information as well. The clean-up procedures established by this California agency recommend the use of a disinfectant (chlorine bleach) whereas the New York City guideline does not make a recommendation for use of a disinfectant.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the "Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings" document that also provides guidelines and insight on clean-up procedures.


Common suggestions among the various documents include:

Correct the source of excessive moisture.
When handling or cleaning moldy materials, consider using a mask or respirator for protection against inhaling airborne spores. Respirators can be purchased from hardware stores; select one for particle removal (sometimes referred to as a N95 or TC-21C particulate respirator).
Wear protective gloves, eye protection glasses, and clothing should be immediately washed.
Take care to remove or clean contaminated materials in a way that prevents the emission of fungi and dust contaminated with fungi from leaving a work area and entering an occupied area.
Non-porous (e.g., metals, glass, and hard plastics) and semi-porous (e.g., wood, and concrete) materials that are structurally sound and are visibly moldy can be cleaned and reused.
Cleaning should be done using a detergent solution.
Porous materials (e.g., ceiling tiles and insulation, and wallboard) with more than a small area of contamination should be removed and discarded. Porous materials that can be cleaned, can be reused, but should be discarded if possible.
A professional restoration consultant should be contacted when restoring porous materials with more than a small area of fungal contamination.
All materials to be reused should be dry and visibly free from mold.
Moisture Control

Water in your home can come from many sources. Water can enter your home by leaking or by seeping through basement floors. Showers or even cooking can add moisture to the air in your home. The amount of moisture that the air in your home can hold depends on the temperature of the air. As the temperature goes down, the air is able to hold less moisture. This is why, in cold weather, moisture condenses on cold surfaces (for example, drops of water form on the inside of a window). This moisture can encourage biological pollutants to grow.

There are many ways to control moisture in your home:

Fix leaks and seepage. If water is entering the house from the outside, your options range from simple landscaping to extensive excavation and waterproofing. (The ground should slope away from the house.) Water in the basement can result from the lack of gutters or a water flow toward the house. Water leaks in pipes or around tubs and sinks can provide a place for biological pollutants to grow. Put a plastic cover over dirt in crawlspaces to prevent moisture from coming in from the ground. Be sure crawlspaces are well-ventilated. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms and kitchens to remove moisture to the outside (not into the attic). Vent your clothes dryer to the outside. Turn off certain appliances (such as humidifiers or kerosene heaters) if you notice moisture on windows and other surfaces. Use dehumidifiers and air conditioners, especially in hot, humid climates, to reduce moisture in the air, but be sure that the appliances themselves don't become sources of biological pollutants. Raise the temperature of cold surfaces where moisture condenses. Use insulation or storm windows. (A storm window installed on the inside works better than one installed on the outside.) Open doors between rooms (especially doors to closets which may be colder than the rooms) to increase circulation. Circulation carries heat to the cold surfaces. Increase air circulation by using fans and by moving furniture from wall corners to promote air and heat circulation. Be sure that your house has a source of fresh air and can expel excessive moisture from the home. Pay special attention to carpet on concrete floors. Carpet can absorb moisture and serve as a place for biological pollutants to grow. Use area rugs which can be taken up and washed often. In certain climates, if carpet is to be installed over a concrete floor, it may be necessary to use a vapor barrier (plastic sheeting) over the concrete and cover that with sub-flooring (insulation covered with plywood) to prevent a moisture problem. Moisture problems and their solutions differ from one climate to another. The Northeast is cold and wet; the Southwest is hot and dry; the South is hot and wet; and the Western Mountain states are cold and dry. All of these regions can have moisture problems. For example, evaporative coolers used in the Southwest can encourage the growth of biological pollutants. In other hot regions, the use of air conditioners which cool the air too quickly may prevent the air conditioners from running long enough to remove excess moisture from the air. The types of construction and weatherization for the different climates can lead to different problems and solutions.
Moisture On Windows

Your humidistat is set too high if excessive moisture collects on windows and other cold surfaces. Excess humidity for a prolonged time can damage walls especially when outdoor air temperatures are very low. Excess moisture condenses on window glass because the glass is cold. Other sources of excess moisture besides overuse of a humidifier may be long showers, running water for other uses, boiling or steaming in cooking, plants, and drying clothes indoors. A tight, energy efficient house holds more moisture inside; you may need to run a kitchen or bath ventilating fan sometimes, or open a window briefly. Storm windows and caulking around windows keep the interior glass warmer and reduce condensation of moisture there.

Humidifiers are not recommended for use in buildings without proper vapor barriers because of potential damage from moisture buildup. Consult a building contractor to determine the adequacy of the vapor barrier in your house. Use a humidity indicator to measure the relative humidity in your house. The American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recommends these maximum indoor humidity levels.

Outdoor Recommended Indoor Temperature Relative Humidity

+20
˚ F. - 35%
+10
˚ F. - 30%
0˚ F. - 25%
-10˚ F. - 20%
-20
˚ F. - 15%

Source: Anne Field, Extension Specialist, Emeritus, with reference from the Association for Home Appliance Manufacturers (www.aham.org).



Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned? - excerpt on duct cleaning and mold follows, please review the entire document for additional information on duct cleaning and mold.

You should consider having the air ducts in your home cleaned if:

There is substantial visible mold growth inside hard surface (e.g., sheet metal) ducts or on other components of your heating and cooling system. There are several important points to understand concerning mold detection in heating and cooling systems:

Many sections of your heating and cooling system may not be accessible for a visible inspection, so ask the service provider to show you any mold they say exists. You should be aware that although a substance may look like mold, a positive determination of whether it is mold or not can be made only by an expert and may require laboratory analysis for final confirmation. For about $50, some microbiology laboratories can tell you whether a sample sent to them on a clear strip of sticky household tape is mold or simply a substance that resembles it. If you have insulated air ducts and the insulation gets wet or moldy it cannot be effectively cleaned and should be removed and replaced. If the conditions causing the mold growth in the first place are not corrected, mold growth will recur.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Top 8 Mold Mistakes
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Top Eight Mold Mistakes

1. If you suspect that you're dealing with a toxic black mold problem, it's imperative that you avoid the some common and costly mistakes.

2. Ignoring Mold Health Symptoms - Be concerned about possible mold problems if one or more occupants is suffering from unexplained health problems such as an ongoing itchy eyes, bloody nose, sinus problems, headaches, nasal congestion, runny nose, skin rashes, skin sores, coughing, breathing difficulties, difficulty in remembering things and in thinking clearly, feeling disconnected from the world around you, and/or chronic fatigue. Please remember that some occupants may experience mold health symptoms, while others may have none, with all living or working in the same mold-infested area. People differ significantly in their sensitivity to mold.

3. Ignoring Mold Clues in the House - You contribute big-time to becoming a mold victim when you ignore roof leaks, plumbing leaks, sewer line leaks, water stains on ceilings, the indoor smell of mold, visible mold growth, high humidity (60% or more to drive mold growth from humidity alone), a wet or damp basement, and a wet crawl space.

4. Assuming There Is No Mold Problem Because Of No Visible Mold Growth - The worst mold infestation problems are often the ones you cannot see inside floors, ceilings, walls, basement, attic, crawl space, and the heating/cooling equipment and ducts. Airborne mold spores are invisible to the eye, very light, and are easily carried in air current movements or in the air flows of your heating/cooling system to mold cross-contaminate your entire house from just one hidden mold problem.

5. Assuming That A New Home Is Mold Free - Today's new homes often come with built-in mold infestation problems because: - moldy building materials are received from the builder's supplier — today's timbers are not kiln-dried as in earlier times, and thus contain a high internal moisture content that makes mold growth possible in the timbers - the builder and its supervisors and employees fail to do quality control to inspect for, and thus prevent, moldy building materials from being used in the home's construction - the builder stores the inventory of building materials on the outside ground with no plastic sheeting to protect the building materials from rain (which thus supplies the necessary water to enable mold to grow in and on the materials) - the construction crew fails to cover the entire home under construction with plastic sheeting at the end of each construction day to protect the building materials from rain (which thus supplies the necessary water to enable mold to grow in and on the materials). The roof and side walls need to be protected against rain until the entire roof, siding, windows, and doors are totally installed to seal out rain - the builder fails to inspect and test the home for mold growth while it is being constructed and at the home's completion - use of modern building materials like chip wafer boards, drywall (plasterboard), and plywood - all of which molds love to eat - failure to spray all wood-based construction materials on all surfaces with at least one spraying of the EPA-registered fungicide and at least one spraying of the EPA-registered Tim-bor wood protectant.

6. Assuming That A Dried Wet Area Is Now Mold Safe - Mold needs moisture to grow and to multiply as it eats your home building materials and personal possessions. This moisture can come from high indoor humidity, roof leaks, siding leaks, and plumbing leaks. If mold spores and mold colony growth run out of moisture, they do NOT die. Instead, they become dormant, and can wait millions of years for access to high humidity or a future water intrusion. Dormant mold can make mold-sensitive persons sick. Even the smell of dormant mold can make some people very sick.

7. Using Chlorine Bleach To Kill Mold - Do not use ineffective chlorine bleach to try to kill mold growth and mold spores. Bleach is too weak even when freshly manufactured to kill mold. Bleach that sits on store shelves and in your home continually gets ever weaker over the passage of time. In addition, read the manufacturer's usage directions on the bleach container. The manufacturer does not recommend its use to kill mold. Bleach is NOT an EPA-registered fungicide. If you want effective mold kill, use EPA-registered mold fungicide.

8. Using Other Ineffective Products To Kill Mold - Regular paint, paint containing a mildicide element, any paint, Lysol, ammonia, and other household cleaners and disinfectants. Painting over a mold problem does not solve it - it only hides the problem temporarily and gives the mold something delicious to eat: the paint itself
Enter the name for this tabbed section: FAQ
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FAQ

How do I determine severity of my mold problem?

A “Mold in Air” test can be completed for $195.00. This report will show what types and quantities of mold that are present. This test is performed by an independent inspection company. These results will help determine the best course of action

- How much will it cost?

There are lots of variables and each job is unique, however $4.00 a sq.ft. is a good rule of thumb for complete abatement.

- Do I have to get rid of personal property?

Absorbent items like carpet, mattresses, pillows and cushions cannot be saved. Durable items can be cleaned including appliances, wood furniture, and wall hangings.

- What about mold outside, will it get inside?

Green or gray fungus on the outside of the house possess no special risk. Power washing will remove it. This cost approximately $200-400 per house.

- Why are your rates so low?

Our formula for determining prices includes fair market prices for material and labor and we post a fair profit. The better question is why are the other guys prices so high.

- How long does it take?

Most major abatement jobs take less than one week.

- Do I need to move out?

On major abatement jobs, the affected areas are usually isolated from the rest of the living space however, removing persons with breathing problems is a good idea.

- What is IAQA?

Indoor Air Quality Assoc.

- What is NYC mold protocol?

There is no national standard. EPA has a guide for remediation in schools and government buildings. NYC established a similar protocol after 9/11. There is no common, or standard protocol for residential abatement.

- Should I get a mold inspection?

When buying a house you should get a mold inspection when:

- someone in your family has breathing problems like Asthma

- when there is visible mold or water damage

- to confirm the effectiveness of a previous abatement
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Resources
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Resources

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): (800) 480-2520; www.fema.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Emergency Preparedness and Response page on "Protect Yourself from Mold" -
www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/mold/protect.asp and Key Facts About Hurricane Recovery -www.bt.cdc.gov/hurricanes/index.asp

University of Minnesota, Department of Environmental Health and Safety - www.dehs.umn.edu/iaq.htm Flood Information - www.dehs.umn.edu/iaq_fi.htm


EPA's publication, Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals, assists health professionals (especially the primary care physician) in diagnosis of patient symptoms that could be related to an indoor air pollution problem. It addresses the health problems that may be caused by contaminants encountered daily in the home and office. Organized according to pollutant or pollutant groups such as environmental tobacco smoke, VOCs, biological pollutants, and sick building syndrome, this booklet lists key signs and symptoms from exposure to these pollutants, provides a diagnostic checklist and quick reference summary, and includes suggestions for remedial action. Also includes references for information contained in each section. This booklet was developed by the American Lung Association, the American Medical Association, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the EPA. EPA Document Reference Number 402-R-94-007, 1994.

Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. EPA's Fact Sheet:
Flood Cleanup: Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems - discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms. This fact sheet provides tips to avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. U.S. EPA, EPA Document Number 402-F-93-005, August 1993.


Allergic Reactions - excerpted from Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals section on: Animal Dander, Molds, Dust Mites, Other Biologicals.

"A major concern associated with exposure to biological pollutants is allergic reactions, which range from rhinitis, nasal congestion, conjunctival inflammation, and urticaria to asthma. Notable triggers for these diseases are allergens derived from house dust mites; other arthropods, including cockroaches; pets (cats, dogs, birds, rodents); molds; and protein-containing furnishings, including feathers, kapok, etc. In occupational settings, more unusual allergens (e.g., bacterial enzymes, algae) have caused asthma epidemics. Probably most proteins of non- human origin can cause asthma in a subset of any appropriately exposed population."


Asthma and Mold

Molds can trigger asthma episodes in sensitive individuals with asthma. People with asthma should avoid contact with or exposure to molds.

EPA's Asthma web site

Additional Resources:

Allergy & Asthma Network/Mothers of Asthmatics (AAN/MA): (800) 878-4403;
www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI): www.aaaai.org American Lung Association: 1-800-LUNG-USA (1-800-586-4872); www.lungusa.org Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America: (800) 7ASTHMA; www.aafa.org Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation "Fighting Mold - The Homeowner's Guide" .mhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/yohoyohe/momo/momo_005.cfm National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: www.niaid.nih.gov National Jewish Medical and Research Center: (800) 222-LUNG (5864); www.njc.org

Damp Buildings and Health

For information on damp buildings and health effects, see the 2004 Institute of Medicine Report, Damp Indoor Spaces and Health, published by The National Academies Press in Washington, DC. You can read a description of the report and purchase a copy at
http://fermat.nap.edu/catalog/11011.htm

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC's)
National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) has a toll-free telephone number for information and FAXs, including a list of publications: NCEH Health Line 1-888-232-6789.

CDC's "Molds in the Environment" Factsheet -
www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm Stachybotrys or Stachybotrys atra (chartarum) and health effects - www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.htm


Additional Resource

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service fact sheet - Safe Food Handling- Molds on Foods: Are They Dangerous?
www.fsis.usda.gov/FactSheets/Molds_On_Food/index.asp September 2005

How to Order Publications

You can order Indoor Air Quality publications from EPA's National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP):

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP)
P.O. Box 42419
Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419
Website: www.epa.gov/nscep
Phone: 1-800-490-9198
Fax: (301) 604-3408
E-mail: nscep@bps-lmit.com

NSCEP operates a Toll-free phone service for EPA Publication Assistance with live customer service representative assistance Monday through Friday from 9:00am-5:30pm eastern time. Voice Mail is available after operating hours. You can fax or e-mail your publication requests. For technical assistance with NSCEP web pages, write to:
nscep_nepis.tech@epa.gov

Please use the
EPA Document Number, which is usually bolded or highlighted, when ordering from NSCEP.
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